JMLP Index

Note:

This is an interactive index. Click on the locator (Unit:Lesson:Section) in order to view the discussion on the topic.


A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   Z

   


 

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A



abortion rights, 3:18:3 , 6:37:3

Adams, John, 3:16:2 , 4:21:4 , 4:23:2

administrative agencies, 4:24:1 , 4:24:2

Administrative Procedure Act (1946), 4:24:1

adversary system, 3:18:2

affirmative action, 3:19:4

Affordable Care Act (2010), 4:26:1 , 6:34:2

African Americans

   citizenship of, 3:17:1 , 3:17:2 , 3:17:5

   civil rights movements, 6:35:1 , 6:35:2 , 6:35:4

   criminal justice issues, 6:35:4

   Equal Protection Clause and, 3:19:1

   school segregation and, 3:19:1 , 3:19:2 , 3:19:3

   voting rights of men, 2:11:4 , 3:15:3 , 3:20:1 , 3:20:2 , 6:35:3

    See also discrimination; slavery

age discrimination, 3:19:5

Alabama, 5:30:5 , 6:35:4

alien, 6:33:4

    See also citizenship

amendments to the U.S. Constitution

   process of, 3:15:1 , 3:15:6 , 6:37:3

   proposed, 3:15:3

    See also Constitution, U.S.; specific amendments

American Civil Liberties Union, 4:22:5

Americans with Disabilities Act, 6:35:4

Anglican Church, 5:28:1

Annapolis Convention, 2:8:4

Anti-Federalist arguments, 2:13:2 , 2:13:3 , 2:14:3 , 3:15:3 , 3:15:4

appellate jurisdiction, 4:25:1

Argentina, 6:36:1

Aristotle, 1:1:2 , 1:2:1  , 1:2:3 , 1:7:3

Arizona, 3:15:2 , 6:35:4

armed forces. See military service

Article I (of the U.S. Constitution)

   on civil rights, 6:35:3

   on congressional limits, 4:21:2 , 4:21:4

   on congressional operations, 4:22:1

   on intellectual property rights, 5:27:5

   on Native Americans, 6:33:4

   necessary and proper clause, 2:11:2 , 2:13:3 , 4:21:4

   on state governance, 4:26:1

   on voting rights, 3:20:1

   war clause, 4:23:2

Article II (of the U.S. Constitution), 4:23:3 , 6:38:1

Article III (of the U.S. Constitution), 3:15:5 , 4:25:1 , 5:27:5

Article IV (of the U.S. Constitution), 2:12:2 , 4:26:1 , 6:37:3

Article V (of the U.S. Constitution), 3:15:1

Article VI (of the U.S. Constitution), 5:27:5

Article VII (of the U.S. Constitution), 2:13:1

Articles of Confederation

   amendment process of, 2:13:1

   central government in, 2:9:2

   Federalists on, 2:14:3

   purpose of, 1:6:3 , 2:8:1 , 2:8:2

   state governments in, 4:26:1

   strengths and weaknesses of, 2:8:4 , 4:23:1

    See also Constitution, U.S.

Australia, 6:34:1 , 6:36:1

autonomy, 5:27:3

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B



bail, 5:32:1

Baltimore, Lord, 1:1:1

Barron v. Baltimore, 5:27:5

Belgium, 6:34:1

bench trial, 5:32:4

bicameral legislature, 4:26:2

bill of attainder, 2:12:1 , 4:21:4 , 4:26:1

Bill of Rights (England, 1689), 1:4:3 , 2:14:3

Bill of Rights (of the U.S. Constitution)

   Anti-Federalists on, 2:13:3

   evolution of, 2:14:3 , 2:14:4 , 3:15:4

   global influence of, 6:36:1

   modern use of, 5:27:7 , 5:27:8 , 5:32:5

   overview of, 3:15:3 , 5:27:1 , 5:27:2

   rights protected by, 5:27:3 , 5:27:4 , 5:27:5

   selective incorporation of, 3:18:4

   vs. UNDHR, 6:36:2

    See also Constitution, U.S.; individual rights; specific amendments

bill procedures, 4:22:3  

bills of rights

   arguments for and against, 2:14:3 , 3:15:3 , 3:18:4

   vs. constitutions, 1:7:3

   defined, 1:7:3 , 5:27:1 , 5:27:2

birthright citizenship, 6:37:3

    See also citizenship

Black, Hugo, 4:25:2

Blackstone, William, 1:4:4 , 4:25:2

blood citizenship, 6:37:3

    See also citizenship

blood draws, 5:31:7

Bloomberg, Michael, 3:16:3

Boehner, John, 4:22:2

Bolognian Law (Italy), 4:25:2

Boston Massacre (1770), 1:6:2     

boycotts, 6:35:2

Brandeis, Louis, 4:25:3

Brazil, 6:36:1

breathalyzer tests, 5:31:7

Brown, Michael, 6:35:4

Brown v. Board of Education, 3:19:1 , 3:19:2 , 3:19:3 , 4:22:4 , 4:25:1 , 6:35:1

Brutus, 2:13:2

bureaucracy, 4:24:2

Burke, Edmund, 1:1:1

Burr, Aaron, 3:16:2

Bush, George W., 4:23:2

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C



California, 3:15:2 , 4:21:4 , 6:37:3

campaign financing, 3:16:3 , 4:22:5 , 5:29:7 , 6:37:3

Canada, 6:36:1

capitalism, 1:3:2

capital punishment, 5:32:5 , 6:33:3

census, 2:10:5

central government. See national government

charters, 1:1:1 , 1:5:1 , 1:6:1 , 2:8:3

Chase, Samuel, 4:25:3

checks and balances, defined, 2:11:1 , 2:11:2

children’s rights, 1:5:3 , 3:19:4 , 4:26:3

Christianity, 1:3:1 , 1:3:2 , 5:28:3 , 5:28:5 , 6:35:4

Cicero, 1:1:2 , 1:2:1  

citizenship

   of African Americans, 3:17:1 , 3:17:2 , 3:17:5

   community and, 6:33:1 , 6:34:2 , 6:37:1

   history of defining, 2:12:3 , 6:33:1 , 6:33:3

   modern issues of, 6:33:4 , 6:37:3

   trial by jury and, 5:32:4

    See also Fourteenth Amendment

Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission, 5:29:7 , 6:37:3

City of Greece v. Galloway, 5:28:5

civic participation, 1:2:1  , 6:33:1 , 6:34:1 , 6:34:2 , 6:39:3

civic virtue, 1:2:1  , 2:14:3 , 6:33:1

civil discourse, 2:9:1 , 6:37:2

civil disobedience, 6:35:2 , 6:35:4

civil proceedings, 3:18:2 , 3:18:4

Civil Rights Act (1964), 4:22:4 , 4:23:4  , 6:35:3

civil rights movements, 6:35:1 , 6:35:2 , 6:35:4

Civil Service Act, 4:23:1

Civil Service Program, 4:24:1 , 4:24:2

Civil War, 3:17:1 , 3:17:4 , 3:17:5

    See also secession; slavery

classes or categories of individuals, 5:27:2

classical republicanism, 1:2:1  , 2:13:2 , 5:27:6 , 6:33:1

Clinton, George, 2:14:4

cloture, 4:22:2

colonies, American

   diversity of, 1:1:1 , 1:5:1 , 1:7:2

   founding philosophies of, 1:1:2 , 1:2:1  , 1:4:6 , 1:7:3 , 6:33:1

   government similarities among, 1:5:2

   organization of, 1:1:1 , 1:5:3

   populations, 2:8:3

   religious freedom and, 1:1:1 , 5:28:1

   resistance to British control by, 1:6:1 , 1:6:2     

   vs. rights of British subjects, 1:5:3

   warrants in, 5:31:1

Colorado, 3:15:2

commander in chief clause, 4:23:2

    See also president

Commentaries on the Laws of England (Blackstone), 1:1:2

commerce. See trade

Commerce Clause, 6:35:3

common good, 5:27:6 , 6:34:2

common law, 1:4:4 , 1:5:3 , 1:7:2 , 5:31:1 , 5:32:1

communication developments, 3:16:3

community and citizenship, 6:33:1 , 6:34:2 , 6:37:1

community service. See voluntary associations

compulsory trial process, 5:32:3

Confederate States of America, 2:8:1 , 2:8:2 , 2:8:3 , 3:17:3

confrontation clause, 5:32:3

Congregational Church, 5:28:1

Congress, U.S.

   Articles of Confederation and, 2:9:2

   checks and balances and, 2:11:1 , 2:11:2

   committee system in, 4:22:1

   constitutional powers of, 4:21:4

   disparate impact and, 3:19:1

   established religion and, 5:28:1

   limiting executive power by, 4:23:4  

   modern order in, 4:22:2 , 4:22:3  , 4:22:5

   protection of individual rights by, 4:22:4

   relationship with president, 2:11:4 , 4:23:2

   separated powers of, 4:21:1 , 4:21:2

   slavery and, 3:17:2

   summary of representation, 4:21:4

   Supreme Court and, 3:15:6 , 4:25:3

   term limits on, 6:37:3

   war decisions and, 4:23:2

    See also House of Representatives; legislative branch; national government; Senate, U.S

Connecticut, 1:7:1

constituents

   Congress and, 4:22:4 , 4:22:5

   presidential checks by, 4:23:4  

Constitution, U.S.

   amendment process in, 3:15:1 , 3:15:6 , 6:37:3

   Council of Revision on, 2:9:2

   for dialogue and conflict resolution, 6:39:5

   on executive branch, 2:12:1 , 4:23:2

   Federalists on, 2:14:3

   implied rights in, 5:27:5

   on international engagement, 6:38:1

   interpretation of, 4:25:2

   on judicial branch, 2:11:5

   on limits to congressional power, 4:21:4

   modern debates on, 6:37:3

   on national vs. state governmental power, 2:12:1

   necessary and proper clause, 2:11:2 , 2:13:3 , 4:21:4

   Preamble, 2:13:1 , 3:17:5

   proposed amendments, 3:15:3

   ratification of, 2:13:1 , 2:14:1 , 2:14:3 , 2:14:4

   on sharing of powers, 2:11:6 , 4:23:1

   slavery and, 2:12:2 , 3:15:3 , 3:17:1 , 3:17:2 , 3:17:5

   vs. state constitutions, 3:15:2

   supremacy clause, 2:12:1 , 3:15:5 , 4:26:1

    See also Articles of Confederation; Bill of Rights (of the U.S. Constitution); Philadelphia Convention (1787); specific amendments and articles

Constitutional Convention. See Philadelphia Convention (1787)

constitutionalism and constitutions

   vs. bill of rights, 1:7:3

   comparison of, 1:4:3 , 1:4:6 , 4:26:2

   defined, 1:1:3 , 1:4:1 , 1:4:3

   establishment of, 1:7:1

   mixed, 1:2:1

   vs. parliamentary system, 1:4:3 , 1:4:6 , 4:21:1 , 4:21:2 , 6:36:1

   rights identified in, 1:7:2 , 1:7:3

   of states, 2:11:1 , 3:15:2

   written opinions, 4:25:2

    See also Congress, U.S.

Constitution Confederacy, 3:17:3

Continental Congress, 1:6:1 , 2:8:1

corporation charters, 1:1:1

Council of Revision, 2:9:2

counsel rights, 5:27:3 , 5:32:1

court-packing plan, 3:15:6 , 4:23:4

courts. See judicial branch; Supreme Court

Covenant of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 6:36:2

Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 6:36:2

coverture, 1:5:3

criminal rights

   African American movement for, 6:35:4

   capital punishment, 5:32:5 , 6:33:3

   criminal defendant protection, 6:36:1

   in early documents, 1:4:3 , 1:7:2 , 1:7:3

   in Georgia, 1:5:2

   legislation by Congress on, 4:22:4

   Miranda rule, 5:31:6

   procedural due process, 3:18:1

   proceedings, 3:18:4

   racial profiling, 3:19:4

   self-incrimination, 5:31:4 , 5:31:5

   state governments and, 6:33:3

    See also judicial branch; trial rights

cruel and unusual punishment, 5:32:5

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D



death penalty, 5:32:5 , 6:33:3

Declaration of Independence

   escalation to, 1:6:2  , 1:6:3

   global influence of, 6:36:1

   grievances in, 1:4:6

   ideals in, 1:2:2 , 1:2:3 , 3:20:3

   summary of, 1:6:3

    See also Bill of Rights (of the U.S. Constitution); Constitution, U.S.

de facto segregation, 6:35:1

de jure segregation, 6:35:1

Delaware, 2:8:3 , 2:14:4

delegate theory of representation, 4:21:4

democracy

   direct, 3:15:2

   origins of, 1:2:1  , 3:20:3

   representative, 2:13:2

Democratic Party, 2:14:2

Dickerson v. United States, 5:31:6

disabled persons’ rights, 3:19:4 , 3:19:5 , 6:35:4

discrimination

   by age, 3:19:5

   de jure vs. de facto segregation, 6:35:1

   Equal Protection Clause on, 3:19:1 , 3:19:4 , 3:19:5

   in military service, 4:23:4  

   in schools, 3:19:1 , 3:19:2 , 3:19:3

    See also African Americans

disparate impact, 3:19:1

districting, 6:37:3

diversity

   American population change, 6:37:1

   in colonial America, 1:1:1 , 1:5:1 , 1:7:2

   federalism and value of, 2:14:2

   vs. unity, 6:39:2

double jeopardy, 5:32:5

Dred Scott vs. Sandford, 3:17:1 , 3:17:2

dual national citizenship, 6:33:4

    See also citizenship

due process of law, 3:15:5 , 3:18:1 , 3:18:3 , 3:19:1 , 5:32:1

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E



economic rights, 5:27:3 , 6:36:1

education

   civic participation and, 6:34:1 , 6:34:2

   founding philosophy on, 6:33:2

   freedom of expression in schools, 5:29:7

   school segregation, 3:19:1 , 3:19:2 , 3:19:3

   state authority on, 4:26:1

Eighteenth Amendment, 3:15:3

Eighth Amendment, 5:32:1 , 5:32:5

Eisenhower, Dwight D., 4:24:2

Electoral College, 2:11:4 , 3:17:1 , 6:37:3

Emancipation Proclamation (1863), 3:17:4

eminent domain, 6:37:3

    See also property rights

employment law, 6:35:4 , 6:36:1

enfranchisement. See voting rights

England. See Great Britain

enlightened self-interest, 6:33:2 , 6:34:2

enumerated powers, 2:11:2 , 2:11:3 , 3:15:4

    See also Tenth Amendment

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 4:24:1

equality of condition, 3:19:1

equality of opportunity, 3:19:1

Equal Protection Clause, 3:19:1 , 3:19:4 , 3:19:5

Equal Rights Amendment (ERA), 3:19:5

established church, 5:28:1 , 5:28:2

establishment clause, 5:28:1 , 5:28:2

    See also religious freedom

European Court of Human Rights, 3:15:6

European Union, 2:8:1

excessive fines, 5:32:5

exclusionary rule, 5:31:4

executive branch

   administrative agencies of, 4:24:1 , 4:24:2

   Anti-Federalists on, 2:13:2

   Articles of Confederation and, 2:9:2

   of British vs. American systems, 4:21:2

   individual rights protection by, 4:23:4  

   Philadelphia Convention discussions on, 2:11:1 , 2:11:2 , 2:11:3 , 2:11:4

   powers of, 2:11:3 , 4:21:2 , 4:23:4

   proposed legislation by, 4:22:4

   reorganization by FDR of, 4:23:1

    See also president

executive orders, 4:22:4 , 4:23:3

ex post facto laws, 2:12:1 , 2:14:3 , 4:21:4 , 4:26:1

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F



factions, 2:14:2 , 3:16:1 , 6:33:1 , 6:37:1

Federal Communications Commission (FCC), 4:24:1

federalism

   core arguments of, 2:14:3

   debates on state and national authority in, 2:13:2 , 2:13:3 , 3:15:4

   establishment of, 1:6:3

   global examples of, 6:36:1

   Supreme Court decisions and, 4:25:3

   vs. unitary governments, 4:21:3 , 4:26:2

Federalist Papers (Publius), 2:14:1 , 2:14:2 , 2:14:3 , 4:23:2 , 6:35:1 , 6:37:1

Federalist Party, 3:16:2

feudalism, 1:3:1

Fifteenth Amendment

   enactment of, 3:20:2 , 6:35:3

   overview of, 2:11:4 , 3:15:3 , 3:17:5

Fifth Amendment

   double jeopardy, 5:32:5

   on eminent domain, 6:37:3

   Miranda rule, 5:31:6

   on personal property, 3:17:2

   on self-incrimination, 5:31:4 , 5:31:5

   on trial rights, 3:18:4 , 5:32:2 , 5:32:3

   on use immunity, 5:31:7

    See also due process of law

filibuster, 4:22:2 , 4:22:3  

First Amendment

   Fourteenth Amendment and, 3:15:3

   freedom of expression (See freedom of expression)

   free exercise clause arguments, 5:28:3 , 5:28:4

   on limits to congressional power, 4:21:4 , 5:28:1

   overview of, 4:25:1 , 5:27:8

   right to assemble, 5:30:1 , 5:30:3 , 5:30:4

   right to associate, 5:30:1 , 5:30:5

   right to petition, 1:7:2 , 5:30:1 , 5:30:2 , 5:30:3 , 6:36:1

    See also religious freedom

flag-burning, 5:29:5

foreign policy, 4:23:2 , 6:38:1

Fourteenth Amendment

   on citizenship, 3:17:1 , 6:33:3

   enactment of, 2:12:3 , 4:25:1 , 6:35:3

   overview of, 3:15:3 , 3:17:2 , 6:35:1

   provisions of, 3:17:5

    See also due process of law; Equal Protection Clause

Fourth Amendment

   blood draws and, 5:31:7

   history of, 5:31:1

   modern use of, 5:27:2 , 5:27:8

   overview of, 3:15:3

   privacy and, 5:31:2

France, 3:16:2 , 6:36:1

franchise. See voting rights

Franklin, Benjamin, 1:5:2 , 2:8:1

freedom of expression

   in campaign financing, 5:29:7

   defined, 5:29:1

   modern use of, 5:29:3 , 5:29:7 , 6:36:1

   in schools, 5:29:7

   scope and limits to, 5:29:3 , 5:29:4 , 5:29:5

   during wartime, 5:29:6

   Zenger trial on, 5:29:2

    See also First Amendment

freedom of religion. See religious freedom

freedom of speech. See freedom of expression

freedom of the press, 5:29:2 , 5:29:6

    See also Fourth Amendment

free exercise of religion clause, 5:28:3 , 5:28:4

    See also religious freedom

French and Indian Wars, 1:1:1 , 1:6:1

Fugitive Slave Clause, 2:12:2 , 3:17:1

fundamental principles interpretation, 4:25:2 , 6:39:1

fundamental rights. See individual rights

funding election politics. See campaign financing

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G



gambling, 4:26:1

Garner, Eric, 6:35:4

gay rights, 6:35:4

gender rights, 3:19:4 , 3:19:5

    See also women

general court, 1:5:2

Georgia, 1:5:2 , 1:7:1 , 2:8:1 , 2:8:3

Germany, 6:36:1

Gerry, Elbridge, 2:11:6 , 4:21:4

gerrymandering, 4:21:4

Gingrich, Newt, 6:37:3

globalization, 6:38:1 , 6:38:2

Glory (film), 3:20:2

government. See national government; state governments

grandfather clauses, 3:17:5 , 3:20:2

grand jury, 5:31:5 , 5:32:1

grant-in-aid programs, 4:26:3

Great Britain

   vs. American constitutionalism, 1:4:3 , 1:4:6 , 4:21:1 , 6:36:1

   bill of rights in, 5:27:1

   colonial resistance against, 1:6:1 , 1:6:2     

   common law in, 5:31:1 , 5:32:1

   governmental functions of, 1:4:1 , 2:11:1 , 4:26:2

   Hamilton on, 3:16:2

   history of written opinions, 4:25:2

   judicial review in, 3:15:5 , 3:15:6

   Prime Minister of, 4:21:1 , 4:21:2 , 4:23:4  

   rights of Englishmen, 1:4:2 , 1:5:3

   voting rights in, 3:20:1

    See also Parliament (Great Britain)

Great Compromise, 2:10:3 , 2:10:4 , 2:11:4

Greeks and Romans Bearing Gifts (Richard), 1:2:1  

Griswold v. Connecticut, 4:25:1

gun regulations. See weapons regulations

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H



habeas corpus, 1:4:3 , 2:12:1 , 2:14:3 , 3:17:4

Habeas Corpus Act (1641), 1:4:3

Hamilton, Alexander

   on commerce, 3:16:2

   on constitutional interpretation, 4:25:2

   Federalist Papers, 2:13:1 , 2:14:1 , 2:14:3 , 4:23:2

   plan proposed by, 2:10:2

   on US-English relations, 3:16:2

happiness, 1:2:3

Hastert, Denny, 4:22:2

Hastert Rule, 4:22:2

Henry, Patrick, 2:14:4 , 4:21:4

Hobbes, Thomas, 1:2:2

House Committee on Un-American Activities, 4:22:5

House of Commons (Great Britain), 4:21:1 , 4:21:2

House of Lords (Great Britain), 4:21:1

House of Representatives

   election terms of, 4:21:2

   powers of the Speaker, 4:22:1 , 4:22:2 , 4:22:3  

   proportional representation in, 2:13:2

   Virginia Plan on, 2:9:2 , 2:10:3

   voting rights and, 3:20:1

    See also Congress, U.S.; Senate, U.S; Three-Fifths Compromise

human rights, 6:36:1 , 6:36:2 , 6:38:2

    See also individual rights

Human Rights Campaign, 6:35:4

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I



immigration. See citizenship; undocumented immigrant rights

impeachment

   of executive officers, 2:11:6

   of presidents, 3:15:5 , 4:21:1 , 4:21:2 , 4:23:3

   of Supreme Court justices, 2:11:5 , 3:15:6

incitement of violence, 5:29:4

incorporation, 3:18:4

indentured servant, 1:5:2 , 1:5:3

India, 6:36:1

indictment process, 5:32:1

individual rights

   capitalism and, 1:3:2

   classes or categories of, 5:27:2

   congressional protection of, 4:21:4 , 4:22:4

   development of, 1:2:2 , 1:3:1 , 3:18:3

   Magna Carta on, 1:4:3

   in public vs. private entities, 5:30:5 , 5:29:7 , 6:35:3 , 6:39:4

    See also Bill of Rights (of the U.S. Constitution); human rights; specific rights

industrialization, 4:24:1

information and civic life, 6:37:1

initiative process, 4:26:3

inquisitorial system, 3:18:2

insurrections, 2:8:4 , 2:12:1 , 3:17:4

intellectual property rights, 3:18:1 , 5:27:5

interest groups, 4:22:5

intermediate scrutiny, 3:19:4 , 3:19:5

Internal Revenue Service (IRS), 4:24:1

international engagement, 4:23:2 , 6:38:1

international law, 6:38:2

international organizations, 6:38:2

Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC), 4:24:1 , 4:26:3

investigatory power, 4:22:5 , 5:31:1 , 5:31:3 , 5:31:4

isolationism, 6:38:1

Italy, 4:25:2

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J



Jackson, Andrew, 4:23:1

James I, King (England), 1:3:1

Japanese American internment, 4:22:4 , 4:25:1

Jay, John, 2:13:1 , 2:14:1

Jefferson, Thomas, 1:6:3 , 3:15:5 , 3:16:2

Jeffersonian Party, 3:16:2

Johnson, Lyndon, 4:22:4 , 4:23:4  

Judeo-Christian tradition, 1:3:1 , 1:3:2

judicial branch

   Anti-Federalists on, 2:13:2

   appointments of, 3:15:6

   Articles of Confederation and, 2:9:2

   authority of judges, 1:4:3 , 1:4:4 , 3:15:5 , 3:15:6

   Philadelphia Convention (1787) discussions on, 2:11:5

   term limits on, 4:25:3 , 6:37:3

    See also criminal rights; Supreme Court

judicial review, 3:15:5 , 3:15:6 , 6:36:1 , 6:38:1

Judiciary Act (1789), 2:11:5

jury trial. See trial rights

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K



Kentucky, 2:10:5 , 5:28:2 , 6:34:2 , 6:37:3

King, Martin Luther, Jr., 6:35:2 , 6:35:4

Ku Klux Klan (KKK), 3:20:2

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L



labor importation. See slavery

Lambda Legal Foundation, 6:35:4

land as incentive for colonists, 1:1:1 , 1:5:3

law of nature. See natural rights theory

laws of general applicability, 5:28:3 , 5:28:4

League of Nations, 4:23:1

legislative branch

   of British vs. American systems, 4:21:2

   disparate impact and, 3:19:1

   elections and, 3:16:3

   organization of, 2:11:1 , 2:11:2 , 4:26:2

   war and, 4:23:2

    See also Congress, U.S.; House of Representatives; Senate, U.S

legislative supremacy, 1:7:1 , 2:11:1

libel, 5:29:2 , 5:29:4

liberty vs. order, 6:39:1

limited government, 1:2:2 , 2:12:1 , 4:21:4

Lincoln, Abraham

   as president, 3:17:4 , 4:23:1

   secession and, 3:17:1 , 3:17:3

literacy tests, 3:17:5 , 3:20:2

literalism, 4:25:2

lobbying, 4:22:5

local governments, 4:26:1 , 4:26:3 , 6:34:1

    See also national government; state governments

localists, 2:8:4

Locke, John, 1:2:2

Lodge, Edward Cabot, 4:23:1

Louisiana, 3:19:2

Luther, Martin, 1:3:2

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M



Madison, James

   on bill of rights, 3:15:4 , 4:26:1 , 5:27:1

   on Constitution, 2:13:1 , 4:25:2

   convention notes by, 2:9:1

   Federalist Papers, 2:14:1 , 2:14:2 , 6:37:1

   objections of Philadelphia Convention (1787) by, 2:11:6

   political party of, 3:16:2

   on slavery in Constitution, 2:12:2

   on small vs. big states, 2:10:2

   Supreme Court case ruling, 3:15:5

   on war and power, 4:23:2

Magna Carta (1215), 1:4:3 , 2:14:3 , 3:18:1

Maine, 3:17:2 , 6:37:3

majority rule vs. minority rule, 6:37:1 , 6:39:3

    See also political party system

majority tyranny, 2:11:1 , 4:22:3  

Marbury v. Madison, 3:15:5 , 3:17:1 , 4:25:1 , 4:25:3

marriage rights, 3:18:3 , 3:20:2 , 6:35:4

Marshall, John, 3:15:5 , 3:17:1 , 4:25:1

Marshall, Thurgood, 3:19:2

Maryland, 1:7:3 , 2:8:3 , 2:8:4

Mason, George, 2:11:6 , 4:26:1

Massachusetts, 1:7:1 , 1:7:3 , 2:10:2 , 5:28:1

Matthews v. Eldridge, 3:18:1

Mayer, Pauline, 1:6:3

McCulloch v. Maryland, 3:17:1

media and civil rights movement, 6:35:4

military service

   desegregation and, 4:23:4  , 6:35:2

   petitions on, 5:30:3

   voting rights and, 3:15:3 , 3:20:2

    See also war

militia, 2:12:1

minority rights vs. majority rule, 6:37:1 , 6:39:3

    See also political party system

Miranda rule, 5:31:6

Missouri Compromise (1820), 3:17:2

mixed constitution, 1:2:1

Morris, Gouverneur, 2:11:4

Mr. Smith Goes to Washington (film), 4:22:2

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N



NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People), 3:19:2 , 5:30:5 , 6:35:2

NAACP v. Alabama, 5:30:5

national government

   checks and balances in, 2:11:1 , 2:11:2

   conflicts with state governments, 2:10:1 , 3:17:3 , 6:39:3

   contractual basis of, 1:7:1

   federalism vs. unitary governments, 4:26:2

   limits to, 1:2:2 , 2:12:1 , 4:21:4 , 5:27:3 , 5:27:4

   relationship with state governments, 4:26:1

   representation of, 2:10:1 , 2:10:3 , 2:13:2 , 4:21:2 , 4:21:4

   responsibilities of, 6:37:1 , 6:37:2

   U.S. ideology and global influence, 6:36:1

   Virginia Plan on, 2:9:2

    See also constitutionalism and constitutions; state governments; specific branches

National Rifle Association, 4:22:5

Native Americans and citizenship, 6:33:3 , 6:33:4

NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization), 6:38:2

naturalization, 6:33:4 , 6:37:3

    See also citizenship

natural rights theory, 1:2:2 , 1:7:2 , 4:25:2 , 5:27:6 , 6:33:1

Nebraska, 4:26:2 , 6:37:3

necessary and proper clause, 2:11:2 , 2:13:3 , 4:21:4

negative rights, 5:27:3 , 6:33:1

negligence law, 1:4:4

New Hampshire, 2:8:3 , 2:14:4

New Jersey, 1:7:2 , 3:20:1

New Jersey Plan, 2:10:2 , 2:10:4 , 2:11:4

New York

   population of, 2:13:2

   Senate representation of, 4:21:4

   state constitution in, 1:7:1 , 1:7:2

   U.S. Constitution ratification in, 2:14:4

Nineteenth Amendment, 2:11:4 , 3:15:3

Ninth Amendment, 3:18:4 , 4:26:1 , 5:27:4

Nixon, Richard, 4:22:5

    See also United States v. Nixon

North Carolina, 1:7:3 , 2:14:4

Northwest Ordinance (1787), 2:8:4

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O



Obama, Barack, 4:23:4  , 4:26:1 , 6:37:3

obscenity, 5:29:4 , 5:29:5

“one person, one vote” requirement, 4:21:4

order vs. liberty, 6:39:1

Oregon, 3:15:2

originalism, 4:25:2

original jurisdiction, 4:25:1

Otis, James, 1:6:2     

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P



Parks, Rosa, 6:35:2

Parliament (Great Britain)

   history and role of, 1:4:1 , 1:4:2

   vs. U.S. Congress, 4:21:1 , 4:22:3  

   vs. U.S. federalism, 4:21:3

    See also Great Britain

parliamentary system

   vs. American constitutionalism, 1:4:3 , 1:4:6 , 4:21:1 , 4:21:2 , 6:36:1

   sovereignty, 1:4:2 , 1:7:1

   strengths and weaknesses of, 2:11:2

   Virginia Plan as, 2:9:2 , 2:10:2 , 2:10:3 , 2:11:4

party system. See political party system

Patterson, William, 2:10:2

Penn, William, 1:1:1

Pennsylvania, 1:7:2 , 1:7:3

   economy of, 2:10:2

   Electoral College of, 3:17:1

   population of, 2:13:2

   U.S. Constitution ratification in, 2:14:1

permanent residence, 6:33:4

    See also citizenship

personal rights. See individual rights

Philadelphia Convention (1787)

   delegates at, 2:9:1 , 2:10:5

   executive branch issues, 2:11:1 , 2:11:2 , 2:11:3 , 2:11:4

   judicial branch issues, 2:11:5

   New Jersey Plan, 2:10:2 , 2:10:4 , 2:11:4

   objections to outcome of, 2:11:6

   purpose of, 1:7:3 , 2:8:4 , 6:37:2

   representation issue and, 2:10:1

   rules of, 2:9:1

   on state governments, 1:7:1 , 4:26:1

   unaddressed issues of, 2:12:3

   Virginia Plan and, 2:9:2 , 2:10:2 , 2:10:3 , 2:11:4

    See also Constitution, U.S.

philosophy

   of natural rights, 1:2:2 , 1:7:2 , 4:25:2 , 5:27:6 , 6:33:1

   tradition of colonists, 1:1:2 , 1:2:1  , 6:33:1

platform, 3:16:1

Plato, 1:1:2 , 1:2:1  

Plessy v. Ferguson, 3:19:2

police powers, 4:26:1 , 5:31:4 , 5:31:7

political party system

   congressional control and, 4:22:1 , 6:37:3

   diversity within parties, 2:14:2

   emergence of, 3:16:2 , 3:16:3

   in modern times, 3:16:3 , 6:37:2

   opposition to, 3:16:1

political rights, 5:27:3

poll tax, 3:15:3 , 3:17:5 , 3:20:2

popular sovereignty, 1:4:2 , 3:20:3 , 4:26:1 , 4:26:3

pornography, 5:29:4 , 5:29:5

positive rights, 5:27:3 , 6:33:1

Preamble to the U.S. Constitution, 2:13:1 , 3:17:5

president

   authority of, 2:9:2 , 2:11:3 , 4:22:3  , 4:22:4 , 4:23:4  

   campaign financing, 4:22:5 , 5:29:7 , 6:37:3

   constitutional responsibilities of, 4:23:1

   election of, 2:11:3 , 2:11:4 , 3:15:3 , 3:16:3

   limitations to power, 4:23:4

   vs. prime minister, 4:23:4  

   relationship with Congress, 2:11:4

   role of foreign reception by, 4:23:2

   Supreme Court and, 4:25:3

   terms of, 2:11:3

   treaties and, 2:11:6 , 4:23:2

   veto power of, 3:15:5 , 4:22:3  , 4:23:1

   war-making and, 4:23:1 , 4:23:2

    See also executive branch

press regulations, 5:29:2 , 5:29:6

    See also Fourth Amendment

Prime Minister (Great Britain), 4:21:1 , 4:21:2 , 4:23:4  

    See also Parliament (Great Britain)

printing restrictions, 5:29:2

prior censorship, 5:29:2

privacy rights, 5:31:2 , 6:37:3

    See also secrecy rule

private entities and individual rights, 5:29:7 , 6:35:3 , 6:39:4

probable cause, 5:31:3 , 5:31:4

procedural due process, 3:18:1 , 5:32:1

procedural justice, 5:32:1

prohibition, 5:28:4 , 6:37:2 , 6:37:3

property rights

   of British vs. colonial Americans, 1:5:3

   due process clause on, 3:18:1

   eminent domain, 6:37:3

   Locke on, 1:2:2 , 1:7:2

   voting and, 3:20:1

proprietary charters, 1:1:1

Protestant Reformation, 1:3:2

public entities and individual rights, 5:30:5 , 6:35:3 , 6:39:4

public prayer, 5:28:5

public trial rights, 5:32:2

pursuit of happiness, 1:2:3

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Q



quasi-judicial powers, 4:24:1

quasi-legislative powers, 4:24:1

quorum rule, 2:9:1

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R



racial discrimination. See African Americans; discrimination

Raleigh, Sir Walter, 5:32:3

Randolph, Edmund, 2:9:2 , 2:11:6

ratification of U.S. Constitution, 2:13:1 , 2:14:1 , 2:14:3 , 2:14:4

rational basis, 3:19:4 , 3:20:1

rebellions, 2:8:4 , 2:12:1 , 3:17:4

recall process, 4:26:3

reception clause, 4:23:2

referendum process, 4:26:3

regular order of Congress, 4:22:2 , 4:22:3  

religious freedom

   civil rights movement and, 6:35:4

   establishment clause, 5:28:1 , 5:28:2

   First Amendment of U.S. Constitution, 1:7:2 , 3:15:3

   founding philosophy on, 6:33:2

   free exercise clause, 5:28:3 , 5:28:4

   identified in first state constitutions, 1:7:2

   as incentive for colonists, 1:1:1 , 5:28:1

   individual rights, 1:3:1 , 1:3:2 , 5:28:3

   overview of, 5:28:6

   public prayer case on, 5:28:5

   Supreme Court on, 4:25:1

   unity vs. diversity and, 6:39:2

Religious Freedom Restoration Act, 5:28:4

Renaissance, 1:2:2 , 1:3:2

representative democracy, 4:22:5

representative government, 2:10:1 , 2:10:3 , 2:13:2 , 4:21:2 , 4:21:4

Republican Party, 2:14:2 , 3:17:3 , 4:22:2

republican tradition. See classical republicanism

reserved powers, 4:26:1

resident alien, 6:33:4

    See also citizenship

Revere, Paul, 1:6:2     

Revolutionary War, 1:6:3

“revolution” of 1800, 3:16:2

rhino (term), 4:22:3  

Rhode Island, 1:6:3 , 2:8:3 , 2:9:1 , 2:14:4

right of revolution

rights. See individual rights; specific types

rights of Englishmen, 1:4:2

rights of the individual. See individual rights

right to appeal, 5:32:5

right to assemble, 5:30:1 , 5:30:3 , 5:30:4

right to associate, 5:30:1 , 5:30:5

right to bear arms. See weapons regulations

right to counsel, 5:27:3 , 5:32:1

right to jury trial. See trial rights

right to petition, 1:7:2 , 5:30:1 , 5:30:2 , 5:30:3 , 6:36:1

Roe v. Wade, 3:18:3 , 6:37:3

Roosevelt, Franklin Delano, 3:15:6 , 4:22:4 , 4:23:1 , 4:23:4  , 4:24:1

rule of law, 1:4:3 , 1:4:4

Ryan, Paul, 4:22:2

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S



salutary neglect, 1:1:1 , 1:5:1 , 1:6:1

same-sex marriage equality, 3:20:2

Scalia, Antonin, 4:25:2

schools. See education

search and seizure, 5:31:1 , 5:31:3 , 5:31:4

sea to sea charters, 2:8:3

secession, 3:17:1 , 3:17:3 , 3:17:5

    See also Civil War

Second Amendment, 4:22:5 , 5:27:2 , 5:27:7 , 5:27:8

Second Continental Congress, 2:8:1

secrecy rule, 2:9:1

    See also privacy rights

security. See war

Sedition Act (1798), 3:16:2 , 5:29:2

seditious libel, 5:29:2

segregation. See discrimination

seizure. See search and seizure

selective incorporation, 3:18:4

self-governance, 1:1:1 , 1:1:2 , 2:8:4

self-incrimination, 5:31:4 , 5:31:5

self-interest. See enlightened self-interest

Senate, U.S.

   election terms of, 4:21:2

   filibuster, 4:22:2

   modern representation in, 2:10:2 , 4:21:1 , 4:21:4

   order in, 4:22:3  

   treaty-making power of, 4:23:2

   Virginia Plan on, 2:9:2

    See also Congress, U.S.; House of Representatives

separate but equal doctrine, 3:19:2 , 6:35:3

separated powers, 4:21:1 , 4:21:2 , 4:22:5 , 4:24:2

separation of church and state, 5:28:1 , 5:28:2 , 5:28:3

Seventeenth Amendment, 3:15:3

Seventh Amendment, 3:18:4

shared powers, 2:11:6

Shays’ Rebellion, 2:8:4 , 2:12:1

Sixth Amendment, 5:32:2 , 5:32:3

slavery

   Constitution and, 2:12:2 , 3:15:3 , 3:17:1 , 3:17:2 , 3:17:5

   Emancipation Proclamation, 3:17:4

   Fugitive Slave Clause, 2:12:2 , 3:17:1

   state divisions on, 2:10:2 , 3:18:4

   Three-Fifths Compromise, 2:10:4

    See also African Americans

Smith, Adam, 1:3:2

social contract theory, 1:1:2 , 1:2:2

South Carolina, 1:7:2

Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), 6:35:2

sovereignty

   parliamentary, 1:4:2 , 1:7:1

   popular, 1:4:2 , 3:17:3 , 4:26:1 , 4:26:3

Soviet Union, 6:38:2

Speaker of the House of Representatives, 4:22:1 , 4:22:2 , 4:22:3  

speedy trial rights, 5:32:2

Stamp Act Congress (1765), 1:6:1 , 1:6:2     , 2:8:1

stare decisis, 1:4:5

state governments

   Articles of Confederation on, 4:26:1

   Civil War and, 3:17:5

   conflicts with national government, 2:10:1 , 3:17:3 , 6:39:3

   constitutions of, 2:11:1 , 3:15:2

   Fourteenth Amendment clause on, 3:18:1

   limits to power of, 2:12:1 , 3:18:4

   organization of, 2:11:1 , 4:26:2

   property laws of, 3:18:1

   relationship with national government, 4:26:1

   religious regulations in, 5:28:2

   rights of citizenship by, 6:33:3

   on slavery, 3:18:4

   voting management in, 6:34:1 , 6:37:3

    See also local governments; national government

statehood, 2:10:5 , 3:17:2

steel mill industry executive order, 4:22:4

strict scrutiny, 3:19:4

Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), 6:35:2

substantive due process, 3:18:3

suffrage movement, 3:20:2

    See also voting rights

Summary View of the Rights of British in America (Jefferson), 1:6:3

super majoritarian process, 3:15:1

supremacy clause, 2:12:1 , 3:15:5 , 4:26:1

Supreme Court

   appointment and terms in, 3:15:6 , 4:25:3 , 6:37:3

   on capital punishment, 5:32:5

   checks and balances on, 4:25:3

   Congress and, 3:15:6 , 4:25:3

   constitutional interpretation methods of, 4:25:2

   constitutional powers of, 4:25:1 , 6:35:1 , 6:39:5

   FDR’s court-packing plan, 3:15:6 , 4:23:4

   incorporation and, 3:18:4

   on individual rights, 3:18:3 , 4:22:4 , 4:25:1

   jurisdiction and, 2:11:5 , 4:25:1

   on police investigative techniques, 5:31:4

   on trial rights, 3:15:5

    See also judicial branch; trial rights; specific case names

Syria, 6:38:2

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T



Takings Clause, 6:37:3

Taney, Roger B., 3:17:2

taxation

   citizenship and, 6:33:3

   established religion and, 5:28:1 , 5:28:2

   Great Compromise, 2:10:3

   for military, 2:13:2

   protests against, 1:5:2 , 1:6:2     

   Three-Fifths Compromise, 2:10:4

Tea Act (1773), 2:8:1

Ten Commandments (in the Bible), 5:28:2

Tennessee, 2:10:5

Tenth Amendment, 3:15:4 , 3:18:4 , 4:26:1 , 5:27:4

    See also enumerated powers

Texas, 5:28:2 , 6:37:3

textualism, 1:1:3 , 4:25:2

Third Amendment, 5:27:2 , 5:27:8

Thirteenth Amendment, 3:15:3 , 3:17:1 , 3:17:2 , 3:17:5

    See also slavery

Three-Fifths Compromise, 2:10:2 , 2:10:3 , 2:10:4 , 2:11:4 , 3:17:1

time, place, and manner restrictions, 5:29:4

Title VII statute, 3:19:1

Tocqueville, Alexis de, 6:33:2 , 6:37:1

town meeting tradition, 1:5:2

trade

   Articles of Confederation and, 2:8:4

   barriers to, 2:12:1 , 2:14:4

   colonial, 1:1:1 , 1:5:1 , 1:5:2

   in European Union, 2:8:1

   growth of, 4:24:1

   Hamilton on, 3:16:2

   interstate commerce regulation, 4:24:1 , 4:26:3

   stare decisis and, 1:4:5

transportation developments, 3:16:3

treaty-making, 2:11:6 , 4:21:2 , 4:23:2 , 6:38:1

Treaty of Versailles (1919), 4:23:1

trial rights

   confrontation clause, 5:32:2 , 5:32:3

   by jury, 5:27:5 , 5:31:5 , 5:32:1 , 5:32:4

   post-trial rights, 5:32:5

   right to counsel, 5:27:3 , 5:32:1

   speedy and public, 5:32:2

   Supreme Court on, 3:15:5

    See also Article III (of the U.S. Constitution); criminal rights; specific amendments; specific case names

Truman, Harry, 4:22:4 , 4:23:2 , 4:23:4  , 4:24:2

trustee theory of representation, 4:21:4

Twelfth Amendment, 3:15:3 , 3:16:2 , 3:16:3

Twentieth Amendment, 3:15:3

Twenty-first Amendment, 3:15:3

Twenty-second Amendment, 3:15:3 , 6:37:3

Twenty-fourth Amendment, 3:15:3

Twenty-fifth Amendment, 3:15:3

Twenty-sixth Amendment, 3:15:3

Twenty-seventh Amendment, 3:15:3

tyranny, 2:11:1

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U



undocumented immigrant rights, 6:33:4 , 6:35:4

    See also citizenship

unicameral legislature, 4:26:2

unitary governments vs. federalism, 4:26:2

United Nations, 6:36:2 , 6:38:2

United States v. Curtiss-Wright, 4:23:3

United States v. Nixon, 4:22:5 , 4:25:3

unity vs. diversity, 6:39:2

Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 6:36:2

unwritten constitution, 1:1:3

use immunity, 5:31:7

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V



vaccinations, 4:26:1

Vermont, 2:10:5

veto power, 2:9:2 , 3:15:5 , 4:22:3  , 4:23:1

Vietnam War, 4:25:3 , 6:38:2

Virginia

   colonial boundaries of, 2:8:3

   colonial population of, 2:8:3

   Declaration of Rights, 1:2:3 , 1:7:1 , 1:7:3

   economy of, 2:10:2

   Electoral College of, 3:17:1

   Potomac River navigation, 2:8:4

   religious freedom in, 5:28:1

   U.S. Constitution ratification in, 2:14:1 , 2:14:3 , 2:14:4

Virginia Plan, 2:9:2 , 2:10:2 , 2:10:3 , 2:11:4

voluntary associations, 6:33:1 , 6:34:1 , 6:37:1

voter registration, 6:34:1

voting rights

   1787 Constitution on, 2:12:3

   of African American men, 2:11:4 , 3:15:3 , 3:17:5 , 3:20:1 , 3:20:2 , 6:35:3

   of eighteen-year-olds, 3:15:3 , 3:20:2

   grandfather clause, 3:20:2

   of immigrants, 6:33:4

   modern voter participation, 6:34:1

   rational basis for, 3:20:1

   of women, 2:11:4 , 3:15:3 , 3:20:1 , 3:20:2

Voting Rights Act (1965), 3:20:2 , 4:22:4 , 4:23:4  , 6:35:3

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W



war

   executive power and, 2:11:3 , 4:23:1 , 4:23:2 , 6:38:1

   financing of, 2:8:1 , 2:8:3 , 2:12:1 , 2:13:2

   free expression rights and, 5:29:6

   international law on, 6:38:2

   voting rights and military service, 3:15:3 , 3:20:2

    See also military service

War Powers Act (1973), 4:23:2

warrants, 5:31:1 , 5:31:3 , 5:31:4

Washington (state), 3:15:2

Washington, D.C., 3:15:3 , 3:19:1

Washington, George, 2:9:1 , 2:14:4

waterboarding, 5:31:4

Watergate scandal. See United States v. Nixon

weapons regulations, 4:22:5 , 5:27:2 , 5:27:7 , 5:27:8

welfare programs, 4:26:3

William the Conqueror, 1:4:1 , 1:5:2

Wills, Garry, 1:5:1 , 1:6:3

Wilson, Woodrow, 4:23:1 , 4:23:2

Wisconsin, 4:26:3

women

   individual rights of, 1:5:3 , 3:19:4 , 4:25:1 , 5:30:3 , 6:35:4

   voting rights of, 2:11:4 , 3:15:3 , 3:20:1 , 3:20:2

    See also gender rights

writ of certiorari, 4:25:1

writ of habeas corpus, 1:4:3 , 2:12:1 , 3:17:4

written constitution, 1:1:3

    See also constitutionalism and constitutions

Wyoming, 4:21:4

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Z



Zenger, John Peter, 5:29:2

Zivotofsky v. Kerry, 4:23:3

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Last modified: Thursday, July 14, 2016, 11:31 PM